Рефлексивен модел за развитие на квалификационните дейности в системата на училищното образование

Съвременното развитие на обществата и икономиките очертава нови предизвикателства пред образователните системи: засилват се междунационалните контакти, развиват се информационните технологии, възникват нови мултикултурни ценности, бързо се променят изискванията на пазара на труда, което налага развитие на комплекси от ключови компетентности, ориентирани към личностно развитие на индивида през целия му живот, към активната му гражданска и социална позиция и към пригодността му за заетост.

  1. Системата за квалификация на педагогическите специалисти

Учителите играят ключова роля не само по отношение на осигуряване на качеството на образователния процес, но и за задържане на учениците в училище. Това обосновава поставянето на специален акцент върху кадрите.

Българските учители отчитат доста по-високо участие от средното в квалификационни курсове:(49%) и обучения, организирани от обществени или неправителствени организации, или фирми, 60 % участват в курсове/практически обучения (например във връзка с учебното съдържание или методиката на преподаване и/или други теми, свързани с образованието). По-малък е и процентът български учители участващи в мрежа от учители, създадена специално за професионалното развитие на учителите (22%) и в индивидуални или колективни изследвания по теми от професионален интерес за тях (23%).

Средно за страните, като най-ефективни форми на професионално развитие са посоче- ни индивидуалните или колективните изследвания по теми от професионален интерес, воденето на неформален диалог с колеги за подобряване на преподаването и квалифи- кационните курсове. Почти 90% от учителите считат, че тези форми имат умерено или голямо влияние върху тяхното развитие като учители. Дейностите, които учителите по сочват като по-малко ефективни, са образователните конференции или семинари и по- сещенията в други училища като наблюдател, но все пак над 75% от учителите преце няват, че те оказват умерено или голямо влияние върху тяхното професионално разви- тие. Данните за България припокриват средните резултати за страните, с тази разлика, че неформалната форма на професионално развитие „Четене на специализирана литература” има най-голямо въздействие за 92,3% от българските учители. [Създаване на ефективна среда за преподаване и учене, 2009, 25] През последните години не се наблюдава интегриран и системен подход към квалификационните дейност в системата на образованието и не е осигурена взаимната свързаност и съгласуваност на основните й компоненти. Недостатъчната съгласуваност и неясно разпределение на отговорностите по отношение на квалификационните дейности водят до недостатъчно ефективни механизми за носене на отговорност на различните равнища в системата на образованието. Квалификацията на педагогическите специалисти не е във връзка с кариерното развитие – не  доразвива и усъвършенства системата на новите длъжности и не я обвързва с квалификацията. До момента не се регистрират систематично в обща иформационна база проведените квалификационни дейности, постигнатите резултати и развитието на педагогическите специалисти. Няма и обща публично достъпна база данни за доставчиците на квалификационни услуги. Квалификационната дейност не се развива и оценява по предсказуем начин, така че да се гарантират постиженията на всеки педагогически специалист спрямо заложените първоначални цели, задачи и ключови компетентности. Не се реализират в пълнота и завършен вид етапите на контрол на качеството.

Нашата страна представлява едно мултиетническо и мултикултурно общество, което я поставя в равнозначна позиция относно разработването и популяризирането на етнопедагогически и етнопсихологически модели по интеркултурно образование в рамките на европейската общност. Актуални проучвания, реализирани по проекти в последните години (Проект „Партньорство  за непрекъснатото развитие на учители“, 2013г; Проект „Квалификация на педагогическите специалисти“, 2013) отразяват съвременната  картина на интеркултурна среда в голяма част от училищата.

Анкетирани 443 директори и учители дават следните отговори на въпроса Кое от следните твърдения най-добре описва етническото разнообразие на учениците/обучаемите във вашето училище/ работно място?

Преобладаващо от един етнически произход: 32.2% 121
Повечето ученици са от един етнически произход, като има представители и на няколко други групи: 45.7% 172
Комбинация от няколко етнически групи: 20.2% 76
Голямо разнообразие от етнически групи: 1.3% 5
Друго: 0.5% 2

Въпреки, че само 32% от учителите преподават в класове с ученици от един етнически произход,  отговорите на 6525 респонденти на въпроса „Училището, в което работите има ли поставени цели, формулирани принципи и план за работа за преодоляване на конфликти/агресивни прояви в областта на образователната интеграция в интеркултурна среда“ са:

Не 5,80%
Отчасти 29,70%
Да 57,30%
Не мога да преценя / Без отговор 7,20%

 

Извършеният от експерти анализ в системата на българското образование доказва отсъствието на:

– пълен пакет педагогически технологии, ориентирани към развитието на детето от небългарски национален и етнически произход. Този факт ограничава учителите в ситуиране на собствена концепция за развитието на детето/ ученика от уязвимата етническа общност или група;

– непознаване и неприлагане от учителите на основни национални и международни документи, касаещи формалната и съдържателната рамка на интеркултурното образование.

Емпиричните анализи в различните форми за следдипломна квалификация на учители на национално равнище доказват:

– непознаване и неприлагане на вариативни ценностноориентирани дидактически и възпитателни технологии на форми в процеса на педагогическо взаимодействие с ученици и родители в условията на мултиетническа среда;

– непознаване и неприлагане на кооперативни рефлексивни форми на педагогическо взаимодействие с помощник-възпитателя и помощник на учителя в мултиетническа среда;

– в условията на педагогическата практика невинаги се прилагат вариативни и алтернативни модели и средства за социално включване на детето и ученика от уязвимата етническа общност или група;

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